A Survey on Middleware Approaches for Distributed Real-Time Systems

Malihe Saghian, Reza Ravanmehr


Nowadays distributed real-time systems are very common in different areas and have many applications. Increasing need to exchange information among distributed and heterogeneous applications, the need for faster development, simplicity of design and implementation, software reuse and coordination problems are the major factors that lead to the design and implementation of middleware architectures in this field. For this purpose, different Quality of Service parameters such as reliability, extendibility, low latency, etc. must be considered. The current survey shows the state of the art of the various researches in this domain by providing and discussing the architecture and the features of major middlewares for distributed real-time systems.


Distributed Real-time Systems, Middleware, Quality of Service

Full Text:



H. Kopetz, Real-time systems: design principles for distributed embedded applications, Springer, 2011.

P. A. Laplante and S. J. Ovaska, Real-time systems design and analysis: tools for the practitioner, John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

D. C. Schmidt, R&D Advances in Middleware for Distributed Real-time and Embedded System, Communication of ACM special issue on Middleware, 2002.

R. E. Schantz and D. C. Schmidt, Middleware for distributed systems: Evolving the common structure for network-centric applications, Encyclopedia of Software Engineering, Vol.1, 2002.

L. Jingyong, Z. Yong, C. Yong, and Z. Lichen, Middleware-based distributed systems software process, International Conference on Hybrid Information Technology, 2009, pp. 345-348.

D. C. Schmidt, A. S. Gokhale, R. E. Schantz, and J. P. Loyall, Middleware R&D challenges for distributed real-time and embedded systems, SIGBED Review, vol.1, no.1, 2004, pp. 6-12.

D. C. Schmidt, Adaptive and reflective middleware for distributed real-time and embedded systems, in Embedded Software, 2002, pp. 282-293.

L. Qilin and Z. Mintian, The state of the art in middleware, International Forum on Information Technology and Applications (IFITA), Vol.1, 2010, pp.83-85.

W. Emmerich, Software engineering and middleware: a roadmap, in Proceedings of the Conference on The future of Software engineering, 2000, pp. 117-129.

Oracle Corporation, Oracle Tuxedo Product Overview, http:// docs.oracle.com, 2012.

M. Richards, R. Monson-Haefel, and D. A. Chappell, Java message service, O'Reilly Media, Inc, 2009.

P. T. Eugster, P. A. Felber, R. Guerraoui, and A.-M. Kermarrec, The many faces of publish/subscribe, ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 35, no.2, 2003, pp.114-131.

C. Esposito, D. Cotroneo, and S. Russo, On reliability in publish/subscribe services, Computer Networks, vol.57, no.5, 2013, pp. 1318-1343.

A. Corsaro, L. Querzoni, S. Scipioni, S. T. Piergiovanni, and A. Virgillito, Quality of service in publish/subscribe middleware, Global Data Management, vol.19, 2006, pp. 1-20.

S. Oh, J.-H. Kim, and G. Fox, Real-time performance analysis for publish/subscribe systems, Future Generation Computer Systems, vol.26, no.3, 2010, pp. 318-323.

C. Aranha, C. Both, B. Dearfield, C. L. Elkins, A. Ross, J. Squibb, et al., IBM WebSphere MQ V7.1 and V7.5 Features and Enhancements, IBM, 2013.

Object Management Group, The Common Object Request Broker Architecture Specification, Version 3.3, http://www.omg.org, 2012.

W. Farrell, Introducing the Java Message Service, IBM, 2004.

Object Management Group, Data Distribution Service for Real-time Systems, Version1.2, http://www.omg.org, 2007.

G. Pardo-Castellote, OMG data-distribution service: Architectural overview, International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshop, 2003, pp. 200-206.

M. Xiong, J. Parsons, J. Edmondson, H. Nguyen, and D. C. Schmidt, Evaluating the performance of publish/subscribe platforms for information management in distributed real-time and embedded systems, http:// www.omgwiki.org, 2010.

Object Management Group, Notification Service Specification, Version1.1, http://www.omg.org, 2004.

P. Gore, I. Pyarali, C. D. Gill, and D. C. Schmidt, The design and performance of a real-time notification service, Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, 2004, pp. 112-120.

Object Management Group, Event Service Specification, Version1.2, http://www.omg.org, 2004.

Object Management Group, Real-time CORBA Specification, Version1.2, http://www.omg.org, 2005.

D. C. Schmidt and F. Kuhns, An overview of the real-time CORBA specification, Computer, vol.33, no.6, 2000, pp. 56-63.

A. S. Krishna, D. C. Schmidt, R. Klefstad, and A. Corsaro, Real-time CORBA middleware, Middleware for Communications, John Wiley & Sons, 2004, pp. 413-435.

Java Expert Group, Real-Time Specification for Java, Version 1.0.2, http://www.rtsj.org, 2008.

G. Bollella and J. Gosling, The real-time specification for Java, Computer, vol.33, no.6, 2000, pp. 47-54.

K. Kim, M. Ishida, and J. Liu, An efficient middleware architecture supporting time-triggered message-triggered objects and an NT-based implementation, 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, 1999, pp. 54-63.

S. F. Jenks, K. Kim, Y. Li, S. Liu, L. Zheng, M. H. Kim, et al., A middleware model supporting time-triggered message-triggered objects for standard Linux systems, Real-Time Systems, vol.36, no.1-2, 2007, pp. 75-99.

K. Kim, Object structures for real-time systems and simulators, Computer, vol.30, no.8, 1997, pp. 62-70.

OASIS Technical Committee, Web services base notification 1.3, http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsn, 2006.

OASIS Technical Committee, Web services topics 1.3, http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsn, 2006.

OASIS Technical Committee, Web services brokered notification 1.3, http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsn, 2006.

P. Niblett and S. Graham, Events and service-oriented architecture: The oasis web services notification specification, IBM Systems Journal, vol.44, no.4, 2005, pp. 869-886.

PrismTech, OpenSplice DDS, Available on: http://www.prismtech.com/opensplice

Real Time Innovations, Connext DDS, Available on: http://www.rti. com

Wang, N., D. Schmidt, et al. QoS-enabled middleware, Middleware for communications, John Wiley & Sons, 2004, pp. 131-162.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Mobile, Embedded and Distributed Systems (JMEDS) ISSN: 2067 – 4074 (online)