Methods for Obfuscating Java Programs
Keywords:Java, obfuscation, lexical obfuscation, data obfuscation, control flow obfuscation, bytecode
AbstractJava programs distributed through internet are suffering of problems like reverse engineering, algorithms theft and unauthorized functional changes. The reason for this issue is that the bytecode from Java class file holds enough information to be decompiled into source code that resembles the original. In this paper, I discuss some practical obfuscation methods that make difficult the understanding of the decompiled programs. The methods analyzed are: lexical obfuscation, data obfuscation, control flow obfuscation, obfuscation methods that make use of the discrepancy between bytecode and source code. In order to evaluate the usefulness of these methods, some metrics will be described.
Michael Batchelder, Laurie Hendren, Obfuscating Java: the most pain for the least gain – Sable Technical Report No. 2006-5
Eric Bruneton, ASM 3.0 A Java bytecode engineering library
Bill Vernes, Inside the Java Virtual Machine, McGraw-Hill
Jon Meyer, Troy Downing, Java Virtual Machine Online Instruction Reference Manual, O’Reilly Associates
Douglas Low, Protecting Java Code Via Code Obfuscation
Dmitry Leskov, Protect your Java code – through obfuscators and beyond, http://www.excelsior-usa.com/articles/java-obfuscators.html
Yury Lifshits, Two courses on program obfuscation, http://yury.name/obfuscation/
Sonali Gupta, Code Obfuscation, http://palisade.plynt.com/issues/2005Aug/code-obfuscation/
Anshuman Mishra, Rajeev Kumar and P.P. Chakrabarti, A Method-based Whole-Program Watermarking Scheme For Java Class Files
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The author(s) is responsible for the correctness and legality of the paper content.
- Papers that are copyrighted or published will not be taken into consideration for publication in JMEDS It is the author(s) responsibility to ensure that the paper does not cause any copyright infringements and other problems.
- It is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the paper prior to the submission.
- The Author(s) retains the right to reuse any portion of the paper, in future works, including books, lectures and presentations in all media, with the condition that the publication by JMEDS is properly credited and referenced.
JMEDS articles by Journal of Mobile, Embedded and Distributed Systems (JMEDS) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://jmeds.eu.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://jmeds.eu/index.php/jmeds/about/submissions#copyrightNotice.